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02. The Basics of BookBinding

Bookbinding-equipment-tools-and-materials
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The art of bookbinding utilizes several different materials, tools and equipment. This chapter presents a review of each of these.

Choosing Quality Supplies

The process of bookbinding requires many raw materials such as paper, threads, tape, boards and fabric. All these items are available in the market in different quality levels and grades. Only the best of these should be used because low quality materials may not achieve a fine binding, which would put both time and efforts to waste. Good quality materials may be expensive, but that should not matter so much because a single binding requires very little of each material. Hence, just a onetime purchase of these materials can be used for producing several bindings.

Paper

Closeup photo of unfinished ‘Rag’ paper to show texture

Paper is available in many forms in the market, and many of these can be used for bookbinding purposes. Rag content paper (paper made from a percentage of woven cotton fibers, normally around 25%, you can purchase online here) is a good choice over wood pulp paper because it does not yellow and possesses higher durability. If a blank book has to be made, then ledger, white wove bound or typewriter paper of around 16 to 20 points should be preferred. For the end sheets, both domestic and imported paper can be selected in any shade like white, cream, gray or ivory. The same type of paper can also be used for the cover board, boxes and slip cases.

The cover should be made from a medium weight paper that is strong and flexible enough to bear folding, pasting and joint fixing. It should also be an attractive shade so that any designing that is done looks beautiful and stands out.

One tip for selecting good quality paper is to inspect it by folding and turning with scraps. If the quality is not good, the paper will either crackle or tear apart. Advice from CreativePro.com on choosing paper.

Tape

Small Roll of Linen Tape

Bookbinding tape is made from linen, cotton or polyester. Polyester tape should not be used in any case because it is not strong enough to support the binding. Either linen or cotton tape should ideally be used, but both have their drawbacks. Cotton tape has a higher flexibility which makes pasting easier. Linen is stronger than cotton and more durable, but the flexibility is a little less. Many times, it has to be pasted twice to achieve the required result. – Personally, I would always use linen tape.

The width of tape comes in various sizes. Generally, one fourth and one half of an inch are suitable for most uses. In some cases, a 3/8 inch tape may also be required.

Thread

Colored, waxed (linen) Binder's Thread

Colored, waxed (linen) Binder’s Thread

The thread used for binding should be strong yet soft enough so that it does not cut and tear apart the signature paper. This just weakens the binding, and it does not last for a very long time then. A thread which possesses all these qualities is the linen binder’s thread, but it is not available easily from highstreet stores (buy it online here from Amazon). The No 16 and No 25 mercerized cotton thread can serve as good substitutes (what is Mercerized Cotton Thread?). The carpet and No 18 button threads can also be used. In most cases, a No 50 thread will also be just fine, which is often used for sewing cloth. The numbers associated with these threads actually depicts their fineness; a greater number indicates a finer thread, further information on Thread (Yarn).

Before sewing, thread should be waxed so that kinking can be prevented. This also strengthens the knot and increases the thread’s life.

Quick tip: You could always wax your own ‘Linen’ thread to save a bit of $$…

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Boards

Books with uncovered plain binding boards

A perfect board is one that is stable and dense, and does not allow the covering material to warp as it is pasted onto the board. At times, the material suffers from shrinkage after the paste has dried, which makes the board hollow onto one side. The same thing can happen with the end sheets as well when they are pasted onto the boards other side. Before pasting any of these, it should be ensured that the pull of the end sheet is the same as the cover material.

Of the many boards available, a binder board is the most suitable one for use (most common brands are Lineco and Davey Board. I often find good deals for BookBinding boards over at Amazon.com). Binders Board is made from pulp and is not made from any glue or lamination. The board is manufactured by hydraulically pressing damped pulp webs or blankets onto top of each other. The process removes water and compacts the fibers, reducing the dimension almost 50%. The board produced by this method is resistant to distortion and has a higher density than other boards of the same thickness, which makes it more suitable for binding.

Chipboard, which is similar to the back that supports paper pads, can also be used for books that are smaller than 7 by 9 inches. For books greater than this size, make sure the board is not stiff which can weaken the binding with time. In this case, a high quality illustration board can be used because it is stiffer and prevents warping. This board is made in a single ply, double ply or threesome ply. If the book is excessively large and requires even stronger covers then two illustration boards can be combined together and used as one. This can be done by pasting them onto each other and leaving them pressed between heavy weights for about 12 hours.

A good video with some alternative sources you can use for boards:

About the Author:

Paul Thomson

Hello and welcome to i BookBinding. My name is Paul Thomson, I have a passion for the written word and love all things Japanese.

I developed this website in order to pass on some knowledge to people new to book binding. This website will remain free for everybody to use, if you find it useful, please share. Follow me on Google+ for updates and posts that will not published on this site. I'm also now on Linkedin!

3 Comments on "02. The Basics of BookBinding"

  1. Danny boy says:

    I didn’t even realize half of these tools existed…

  2. Suzy says:

    In your photo of “applying paste the spine”, that actually looks like someone cleaning a spine. There’s old glue on the spine, and paste (and/or methylcellulose) is often used to soften the old glue to make it easier to remove.

    Also, microwave paste is MUCH easier for a beginner. Just combine a 1:5 ratio of paste to water. Stir with a whisk to get out the lumps, then pop into the microwave and stir every 8 seconds or so until it turns translucent.

  3. Suzy says:

    Also, there’s more than just two kinds of presses! A bookbinding/nipping press is also essential for making case-bound books.

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